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Boundary layer development and roll vortex structure during a cold air outbreak

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Citation:
Hartmann, J. , Kottmeier, C. and Raasch, R. (1997): Boundary layer development and roll vortex structure during a cold air outbreak , Bound Layer Meteorol , 84 , 45 - 65 .
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Abstract:

The development of the boundary layer during a cold air outbreak in the FramStrait is documented by aircraft measurements. The convection was organisedinto roll vortices with aspect ratios increasing from 2.9 near the ice edgeto more than 6 at 100\,km further downstream. This increase coincides with anincrease of the latent heat release in the cloud layer. The stability parameter$-z_i/L$ varies from about zero at the ice edge to 30 at a distance of 200\,kmdownstream over open water where the satellite picture still shows cloudstreets. The increase is mainly due to the deepening of the boundary layer.The turbulent vertical sensible and latent heat fluxes near the surface amountto 400\,Wm$^{-2}$ within a 300\,km off-ice zone. 25\% of the upward heat fluxin the subcloud layer is carried out by organised roll motions. Experimentswith a 2-dimensional non-hydrostatic model show a similar roll aspect ratio inthe first 50\,km, but further downstream where condensational heating is moreimportant the modelled roll wavelengths are distinctly smaller than the observedones.

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