Paleoproductivity patterns at the EoceneOligocene boundary in southern high latitudes and in the equatorial oceans were synthesized from the literature. Three ODP/DSDP sites from the Southern Ocean (Sites 689, 748 and 511) were compared with three DSDP/ODP sites from the equatorial oceans (Sites 574, 462 and 959). Paleoproductivity was estimated by multiple sedimentological, biological and geochemical proxies. Changes in paleoproductivity at the EoceneOligocene boundary mainly took place in the southern high latitudes. At Site 689, the benthic foraminiferal fauna also indicates an increase in seasonality. In equatorial oceans, there are no indications for a shift to higher paleoproductivity at the EoceneOligocene boundary. On the contrary at Site 959, sedimentology documents decreasing paleoproductivity in the Oligocene. Major changes in temperature and ocean circulation in southern high latitudes versus only minor changes in the lower latitudes were probably responsible for the geographically different changes in paleoproductivity.