In this study, the grain-size and clay-mineral compositions of 73 surface sediment samples collected in a variety of environmental settings in the White Sea are presented to characterize recent sedimentation processes, reconstruct transport pathways, and identify potential source areas of the terrigenous components. Areas >100 m deep are invariably characterized by silty clay, whereas areas <100 m deep exhibit more heterogeneous grain-size compositions plausibly explained by coastal erosion and (re-)distribution mechanisms, particularly tidal currents. The dominance of sand in the estuarine areas of the Onega and Dvina rivers as well as toward Gorlo Strait connecting the White Sea with the Barents Sea, is attributed to increased current speeds. Illite and smectite are the dominant clay minerals in recent sediments of the southwestern and eastern White Sea sectors, respectively. Their distribution patterns largely depend on the geology of the source areas and mirror surface circulation patterns, especially in Dvina Bay. Smectite is a key clay mineral in White Sea surface sediments as it reveals the dominating influence of the Northern Dvina's runoff on sedimentation and water circulation throughout the basin of the sea. In comparison to other Eurasian shelf seas, the White Sea is characterized by a greater diversity of clay-mineral assemblages, which range from illite- to smectite-dominated sectors containing variable amounts of chlorite and kaolinite.