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Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures, with a focus on azaspiracid methyl-esters as extraction artefacts

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Jauffrais, T. , Herrenknecht, C. , Séchet, V. , Sibat, V. , Tillmann, U. , Krock, B. , Kilkoyne, J. , Miles, C. O. , McCarron, P. , Amzil, Z. and Hess, P. (2012): Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures, with a focus on azaspiracid methyl-esters as extraction artefacts , Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403 , pp. 833-846 .
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Abstract:

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are secondary metabolites of Azadinium spinosum that can accumulate in shellfish and cause food poisoning when consumed. We describe here an analytical procedure for the determination of AZAs in cultures of A. spinosum with a focus on the formation of AZA methyl esters as artefacts during extraction and sample pretreatment. A. spinosum cells were collected from bioreactor cultures using centrifugation or filtration. Different extraction procedures were evaluated for formation of methyl ester artefacts, yield, and matrix effects. Filtration of cultures using glass-fibre filters led to increased formation of methyl esters, and centrifugation is recommended for recovery of cells. The extraction solvent (methanol (MeOH), acetone, and acetonitrile (MeCN)) did not significantly affect the yield of AZAs as long as the organic content was 80% or higher. However, the use of MeOH as extraction solvent led to increased formation of methyl esters. AZA1 recovery over two successive extractions was 100% at the 95% confidence level for acetone and MeOH. In standardaddition experiments, no significant matrix effects were observed in extracts of A. spinosum or Azadinium obesum up to a sample size of 4.5×109 μm3. Moreover, experiments carried out to clarify the formation and structure of methylated AZA analogues led to the description of two AZA methyl esters and to the correction of the chemical structures of AZAs29–32.

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