In 2004 and 2005 a passive seismic experiment was carried out in the northern and northeastern part of the Bohemian Massif (Sudetes) to study the lithospheric structure. We present results from Ps and Sp receiver function analyses. With one exception, Moho depth at stations in the northwestern part of the study area varies between 28 and 32 km. Thicker crust up to 35 km was mapped toward the south (Moldanubian unit) and toward the east (Moravo–Silesian and Brunovistulian units) confirming results from previous active seismic measurements. There exists a relatively sharp step in Moho depth between units of the central Sudetes (~ 30 km) and the Moravo–Silesian unit (~ 35 km). The vp/vs ratios inverted from primary and multiple Moho Ps conversions hint for different crustal compositions of the units. Toward the Carpathian thrust we have no clear indications for any crustal root or slab beneath the western Carpathians. However, our data suggests a deepening of the Moho or at least a complicated crust–mantle transition in this area. Additional Ps phases were observed between 6 and 10 s delay time in the Sudetes. These phases cannot be explained by Moho reverberations, but are most probably caused by low velocity zones in the middle crust or lithospheric mantle as shown by modeling of theoretical receiver functions. The stations showing these abnormal phases are located in the area of Permo-Carboniferous basins on probably Teplá–Barrandian crust. Therefore we assume that the phases hint at a mid-crustal low velocity zone between 16 and 20 km depth, which is interpreted as a felsic solidified magma reservoir of the Permo-Carboniferous volcanism beneath the Sudetic Basins. Sp receiver functions show phases with negative polarity at 9 to 12 s lead time on average, which we interpret as lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary at about 80 to 110 km depth.