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Supplement to: Air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 2002-2004 at a rural site in the Great Lakes

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Su, Y. , Hung, H. , Brice, K. A. , Su, K. , Alexandrou, N. , Blanchard, P. , Chan, E. , Sverko, E. and Fellin, P. (2009): Supplement to: Air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 2002-2004 at a rural site in the Great Lakes , Bremerhaven, PANGAEA .
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Abstract:

Atmospheric PBDEs were measured on a monthly basis in 2002-2004 at Point Petre, a rural site in the Great Lakes. Average air concentrations were 7.0 ± 13 pg m**-3 for the sum of 14BDE (excluding BDE-209), and 1.8 ± 1.5 pg m**-3 for BDE-209. Concentrations of 3 dominant congeners (i.e., BDE-47, 99, and 209) were comparable to previous measurements at remote/rural sites around the Great Lakes, but much lower than those at urban areas. Weak temperature dependence and strong linear correlations between relatively volatile congeners suggest importance of advective inputs of gaseous species. The significant correlation between BDE-209 and 183 implies their transport inputs associated with particles. Particle-bound percentages were found greater for highly brominated congeners than less brominated ones. These percentages increase with decreasing ambient temperatures. The observed gas/particle partitioning is consistent with laboratory measurements and fits well to the Junge-Pankow model. Using air mass back-trajectories, atmospheric transport to Point Petre was estimated as 76% for BDE-47, 67% for BDE-99, and 70% for BDE-209 from west-northwest and southwest directions. During the same time period, similar congener profiles and concentration levels were found at Alert in the Canadian High Arctic. Different inter-annual variations between Point Petre and Alert indicate that emissions from other regions than North America could also contribute PBDEs in the Arctic. In contrast to weak temperature effect at Point Petre, significant temperature dependence in the summertime implies volatilization emissions of PBDEs at Alert. Meanwhile, episodic observations in the wintertime were likely associated with enhanced inputs through long-range transport during the Arctic Haze period.

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