The systematic position of Amphidoma caudata Halldal within the genus Amphidoma has remained uncertain as a result of its plate formula and the absence of molecular phylogenetic data. Also, this thecate dinoflagellate taxon has been used to designate two distinct morphotypes. The present study aims to clarify the generic affiliation of Amphidoma caudata and the taxonomic value of two different morphotypes M1 and M2. The new examination of the plate formula using SEM showed that it was the same for both morphotypes and that it corresponded to the tabulation of the recent erected genus Azadinium Elbra¨chter et Tillmann. Morphometric analysis, using cell size, length of apical projection in conjunction with the cell length, and the ratio of horn and spine showed that M1 and M2 formed two distinct groups. These results were supported by a molecular approach, revealing notable differences in the sequences of LSU rDNA and ITS region between these two morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses inferred either from LSU and combined SSU, ITS region and COI data positioned M1 and M2 in a sister cluster of Azadinium species while Amphidoma languida Tillmann, Salas et Elbra¨chter, the only species of Amphidoma for which sequence data were available, was situated in a basal position of the Azadinium clade. Thus, we propose the transfer of Amphidoma caudata to the genus Azadinium and, consequently, the rehabilitation of the original tabulation of the genus Amphidoma Stein. To discriminate the two morphotypes, we propose a rank of variety with the following designations: Azadinium caudatum var. caudatum and Azadinium caudatum var. margalefii.