We describe new records of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from Central America and islands of the Caribbean Sea, provide updated descriptions including scanning electron microscopy and include a list of all species known from this region. Three new species are described: Pseudochordodes bulbareolatus from Mexico and Guatemala, Neochordodes chordodides from Costa Rica and Belize, and Chordodes polytuberculatus from Costa Rica. From Belize and Trinidad ( Gordius robustus ), nematomorphs are reported for the first time. Further records include species known from North America ( Pseudochordodes manteri , Neochordodes occidentalis ) or from South America ( Pseudochordodes meridionalis ). The actual number of species known from continental Central America is 22 species from five genera, and from Caribbean islands five species from three genera are known.