The abstraction of complex biological lightweight structure features into a producible technical component is a fundamental step within the transfer of design principles from nature to technical lightweight solutions. A major obstacle for the transfer of natural lightweight structures to technical solutions is their peculiar geometry. Since natural lightweight structures possess irregularities and often have extremely complex forms due to elaborate growth processes, it is usually necessary to simplify their design principles. This step of simplification/abstraction has been used in different biomimetic methods, but so far, it has an arbitrary component, i.e. it crucially depends on the competence of the person who executes the abstraction. This paper describes a new method for abstraction and specialization of natural micro structures for technical lightweight components. The new method generates stable lightweight design principles by using topology optimization within a design space of preselected biological archetypes such as diatoms or radiolarian. The resulting solutions are adapted to the technical load cases and production processes, can be created in a large variety, and may be further optimized e.g. by using parametric optimization.