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Observations of superimposed ice formation at melt-onset on fast ice on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

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Nicolaus, M. , Haas, C. and Bareiss, J. (2003): Observations of superimposed ice formation at melt-onset on fast ice on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard , Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 28 , pp. 1241-1248 . doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2003.08.048
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Abstract:

Measurements of superimposed ice formation and snow properties as a function of the surface energy balance during melt-onset are presented. They were performed on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, between late May and early June 2002. Rapid snow melt commenced and within 5 days the snow cover initially 0.23 m thick transformed completely into 0.05 m to 0.06 m of superimposed ice. Melt-onset was characterized by rapid changes in the total energy balance, which became positive throughout the whole day after May 27. The increased energy fluxes were mainly caused by higher incoming long-wave radiation due to overcast conditions.

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