Due to international law the Antarctic is currently the best protected large ecosystem on Earth, providing the opportunity for scientific research into processes of both regional and global importance. However, it is impossible to carry out research activities without minor disturbances to the environment. The Weddell Sea with its shelf inhabiting fauna can be considered to be representative for the entire Antarctic shelf with exceptions. It has generally escaped major anthropogenic impact but it is the only area in the high latitude Antarctic where long-term research fishing has been carried out. There are two main results combining aspects of nature conservation and benthos reseach.