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Predominance of beta-proteobacteria in summer melt pools on Arctic pack ice

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Citation:
Brinkmeyer, R. , Glöckner, F. O. , Helmke, E. and Amann, R. (2003): Predominance of beta-proteobacteria in summer melt pools on Arctic pack ice , Limnology and Oceanography. .
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Abstract:

A comprehensive assessment of diversity and community structure in melt pools on Arctic pack ice floes revealed a predominance of b-proteobacteria. Thirty-five percent of the pure cultures isolated in 1997 from pack ice floes north of Svalbard and in the Fram Strait were identified as b-proteobacteria, however diversity within this group was limited to only 2 phylotypes that clustered within the widespread Comamonadaceae clade. One phylotype, most closely related to soil ultramicrobacterium ND5 (96.4-97.0% identical), was frequent among cultures isolated from 10 melt pools. A 16S rRNA gene clone library, constructed from a melt pool sampled 2 years later in the Fram Strait, also revealed predominance of b-proteobacteria, in particular the same recurrent isolate phylotype. Fluorescence-in situ-hybridization of 20 melt pools corroborated the cultivation and cloning data. b-proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group constituting approximately 49% of DAPI counts. a- and g-proteobacteria accounted for only 2% each, the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group for 9% and the Actinobacteria for 9%. Approximately 63% of the b-proteobacterial fraction in the melt pools was determined with a newly developed probe to be the recurrent b-proteobacterial phylotype. The molecular signature of the melt pools was reflective of freshwater or terrestrial ecosystems and appeared to represent a distinct population separate from the bacterial community found within the sea ice matrix.

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