Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae)


Contact
Urban.Tillmann [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Azadinium spinosum (Elbrächter and Tillmann), a small marine dinoflagellate, has been recently described as a de novo producer of azaspiracid-1 and -2 (AZA1 and -2) diarrhoeic toxins. A culture of A. spinosum was established in our laboratory and optimised for pilotscale production of this organism, to evaluate and understand AZA1 and -2 accumulation and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) fed with A. spinosum. Adult mussels were continuously exposed to A. spinosum over 1 week in 160 L cylindrical conical tanks. Three different diets were tested for contamination: 5000, 10 000 cells mL�1 of A. spinosum and a mixture of 5000 cells mL�1 of A. spinosum with 5000 cells mL�1 of Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-Iso, CCAP 927/14). During the subsequent period of detoxification (2 weeks), contaminated mussels were continuously fed with 5000 cells mL�1 of T-Iso. Kinetics of accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation were evaluated, as well as the toxin distribution and the effect of A. spinosum on mussel digestive gland tubules. M. edulis fed on A. spinosum in the three tested conditions; this finding confirmed our recent experiments feeding A. spinosum to mussels. The original algal toxins AZA1 and -2, as well as mussel metabolites AZA3 to 12, -17, -19, -21 and -23 were found during these trials. After as little as 6 h, azaspiracid contents in mussels reached the EU regulatory limit, and metabolites were observed in all conditions at approximately 25% of the total AZA content. This fraction exceeded 50% after 24 h, and continued to increase until the end of the study. AZA17 and -19 were found to be the main metabolites, with AZA17 concentrations estimated in the same order of magnitude as that of the main algal toxin, AZA1.



Item Type
Article
Authors
Divisions
Programs
Peer revision
Scopus/ISI peer-reviewed
Publication Status
Published
Eprint ID
30833
Cite as
Jauffrais, T. , Marcaillou, C. , Herrenknecht, C. , Truquet, P. , Séchet, V. , Nicolau, E. , Tillmann, U. and Hess, P. (2012): Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae) , Toxicon, 60 , pp. 582-595 .


Share

Research Platforms
N/A

Campaigns


Actions
Edit Item Edit Item