Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution


Read, Betsy A, Kegel, Jessica ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4740-9554, Klute, Mary J., Kuo, Alan, Lefebvre, Stephane C., Maumus, Florian, Mayer, Christoph, Miller, John, Monier, Adam, Salamov, Asaf, Young, Jeremy, Aguilar, Maria, Claverie, Jean-Michel, Frickenhaus, Stephan ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0356-9791, Gonzalez, Karina, Herman, Emily K., Lin, Yao-Cheng, Napier, Johnathan, Ogata, Hiroyuki, Sarno, Analissa F., Schmutz, Jeremy, Schroeder, Declan, de Vargas, Colomban, Verret, Frédéric, von Dassow, Peter, Valentin, Klaus, Van de Peer, Yves, Wheeler, Glen, Allen, Andrew E., Bidle, Kay, Borodovsky, Mark, Bowler, Chris, Brownlee, Colin, Cock, J. Mark, Elias, Marek, Gladyshev, Vadim N., Groth, Marco, Guda, Chittibabu, Hadaegh, Ahmad, Iglesias-Rodriguez, Debora, Jenkins, Jerry, Jones, Bethan M., Lawson, Tracey, Leese, Florian, Lindquist, Erika, Lobanov, Alexei, Lomsadze, Alexandre, Lucas, Susan, Malik, Shehre-Banoo, Marsh, Mary E., Mock, Thomas, Mueller-Roeber, Bernd, Pagarete, Antonio, Parker, Micaela, Probert, Ian, Quesneville, Hadi, Raines, Christine, Rensing, Stefan A., Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio, Richier, Sophie, Rokitta, Sebastian ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7540-9033, Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro, Soanes, Darren M., van der Giezen, Mark, Wahlund, Thomas M., Williams, Bryony, Wilson, Willie, Wolfe, Gordon, Wurch, Louie L., Dacks, Joel B., Delwiche, Charles F., Dyhrman, Sonya T., Glöckner, Gernot, John, Uwe ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1297-4086, Richards, Thomas, Worden, Alexandra Z., Zhang, Xiaoyu and Grigoriev, Igor V. ;
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Klaus.Valentin [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering themvisible fromspace3.Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate thatE. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.



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Article
Authors
Read, Betsy A, Kegel, Jessica ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4740-9554, Klute, Mary J., Kuo, Alan, Lefebvre, Stephane C., Maumus, Florian, Mayer, Christoph, Miller, John, Monier, Adam, Salamov, Asaf, Young, Jeremy, Aguilar, Maria, Claverie, Jean-Michel, Frickenhaus, Stephan ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0356-9791, Gonzalez, Karina, Herman, Emily K., Lin, Yao-Cheng, Napier, Johnathan, Ogata, Hiroyuki, Sarno, Analissa F., Schmutz, Jeremy, Schroeder, Declan, de Vargas, Colomban, Verret, Frédéric, von Dassow, Peter, Valentin, Klaus, Van de Peer, Yves, Wheeler, Glen, Allen, Andrew E., Bidle, Kay, Borodovsky, Mark, Bowler, Chris, Brownlee, Colin, Cock, J. Mark, Elias, Marek, Gladyshev, Vadim N., Groth, Marco, Guda, Chittibabu, Hadaegh, Ahmad, Iglesias-Rodriguez, Debora, Jenkins, Jerry, Jones, Bethan M., Lawson, Tracey, Leese, Florian, Lindquist, Erika, Lobanov, Alexei, Lomsadze, Alexandre, Lucas, Susan, Malik, Shehre-Banoo, Marsh, Mary E., Mock, Thomas, Mueller-Roeber, Bernd, Pagarete, Antonio, Parker, Micaela, Probert, Ian, Quesneville, Hadi, Raines, Christine, Rensing, Stefan A., Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio, Richier, Sophie, Rokitta, Sebastian ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7540-9033, Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro, Soanes, Darren M., van der Giezen, Mark, Wahlund, Thomas M., Williams, Bryony, Wilson, Willie, Wolfe, Gordon, Wurch, Louie L., Dacks, Joel B., Delwiche, Charles F., Dyhrman, Sonya T., Glöckner, Gernot, John, Uwe ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1297-4086, Richards, Thomas, Worden, Alexandra Z., Zhang, Xiaoyu and Grigoriev, Igor V. ;
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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
Publication Status
Published
Eprint ID
32732
DOI 10.1038/nature12221

Cite as
Read, B. A. , Kegel, J. , Klute, M. J. , Kuo, A. , Lefebvre, S. C. , Maumus, F. , Mayer, C. , Miller, J. , Monier, A. , Salamov, A. , Young, J. , Aguilar, M. , Claverie, J. M. , Frickenhaus, S. , Gonzalez, K. , Herman, E. K. , Lin, Y. C. , Napier, J. , Ogata, H. , Sarno, A. F. , Schmutz, J. , Schroeder, D. , de Vargas, C. , Verret, F. , von Dassow, P. , Valentin, K. , Van de Peer, Y. , Wheeler, G. , Allen, A. E. , Bidle, K. , Borodovsky, M. , Bowler, C. , Brownlee, C. , Cock, J. M. , Elias, M. , Gladyshev, V. N. , Groth, M. , Guda, C. , Hadaegh, A. , Iglesias-Rodriguez, D. , Jenkins, J. , Jones, B. M. , Lawson, T. , Leese, F. , Lindquist, E. , Lobanov, A. , Lomsadze, A. , Lucas, S. , Malik, S. B. , Marsh, M. E. , Mock, T. , Mueller-Roeber, B. , Pagarete, A. , Parker, M. , Probert, I. , Quesneville, H. , Raines, C. , Rensing, S. A. , Riano-Pachon, D. M. , Richier, S. , Rokitta, S. , Shiraiwa, Y. , Soanes, D. M. , van der Giezen, M. , Wahlund, T. M. , Williams, B. , Wilson, W. , Wolfe, G. , Wurch, L. L. , Dacks, J. B. , Delwiche, C. F. , Dyhrman, S. T. , Glöckner, G. , John, U. , Richards, T. , Worden, A. Z. , Zhang, X. and Grigoriev, I. V. (2013): Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution , Nature . doi: 10.1038/nature12221


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