Investigating GluCEST and its specificity for pH mapping at low temperatures


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Christian.Bock [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) from glutamate to water (GluCEST) is a powerful tool for mapping glutamate concentration and intracellular pH. GluCEST could also be helpful to understand the physiology of lower aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the GluCEST effect and the exchange rate ksw from amine protons of glutamate to water in a broad range of temperatures (1–37°C) and pH (5.5–8.0). Z-spectra were measured from glutamate solutions at different pH values and temperatures and analysed by numerically solving the Bloch–McConnell equation. As expected, a strong dependence of the GluCEST effect and the determined ksw values on pH and temperature was observed. In addition, a strong dependence of the GluCEST effect on phosphate buffer concentration was confirmed. The in vitro data show that GluCEST is detectable in the whole temperature range, even at 1°C. An interpolation function for the exchange rate ksw was determined for the considered range of temperatures and pH values, showing a bijective relation between the exchange rate and pH at a given temperature. To investigate the specificity of GluCEST imaging at low temperatures, the CEST effect was investigated for several metabolites relevant for CEST imaging of the brain. As an example, the contribution of GluCEST to the total CEST effect at 3ppm was estimated for zebrafish (Danio rerio). It is shown that also at lower temperatures glutamate is the major contributor to the total CEST effect, particularly if the experimental parameters are optimized.



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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
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Published
Eprint ID
38821
DOI 10.1002/nbm.3416

Cite as
Wermter, F. C. , Bock, C. and Dreher, W. (2015): Investigating GluCEST and its specificity for pH mapping at low temperatures , NMR in Biomedicine, 28 (11), pp. 1507-1517 . doi: 10.1002/nbm.3416


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