Identification of gymnodimine D and presence of gymnodimine variants in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea


Contact
Bernd.Krock [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Gymnodimines are lipophilic toxins produced by the marine dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Currently four gymnodimine analogues are known and characterized. Here we describe a novel gymnodimine and a range of gymnodimine related compounds found in an A. ostenfeldii isolate from the northern Baltic Sea. Gymnodimine D (1) was extracted and purified from clonal cultures, and characterized by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) experiments. The structure of 1 is related to known gymnodimines (2–5) with a six-membered cyclic imine ring and several other fragments typical of gymnodimines. However, the carbon chain in the gymnodimine macrocyclic ring differs from the known gymnodimines in having two tetrahydrofuran rings in the macrocyclic ring.



Item Type
Article
Authors
Divisions
Primary Division
Programs
Primary Topic
Peer revision
ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
Publication Status
Published
Eprint ID
39723
DOI 10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.01.064

Cite as
Harju, K. , Koskela, H. , Kremp, A. , Suikkanen, S. , de la Iglesia, P. , Miles, C. O. , Krock, B. and Vanninen, P. (2016): Identification of gymnodimine D and presence of gymnodimine variants in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea , Toxicon, 112 , pp. 68-76 . doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.01.064


Download
[img]
Preview
PDF
Harju_2016.pdf

Download (650kB) | Preview
Cite this document as:

Share


Citation

Research Platforms
N/A

Campaigns


Actions
Edit Item Edit Item