Seasonal proliferation rates and the capacity to express genes involved in cell cycling and maintenance in response to seasonal and experimental food shortage in Laternula elliptica from King George Island


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Doris.Abele [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Melting of coastal glaciers at the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) causes shorter winter sea ice duration, intensified ice scouring, sediment erosion and surface freshening in summer, which alters coastal productivity and feeding conditions for the benthos. The soft shell clam Laternula elliptica is a fast growing and abundant filter feeder in coastal Antarctica and a key element for bentho-pelagic carbon recycling. Our aim was to assess the cellular growth and maintenance capacity of small and large clams during natural winter food shortage (seasonal sampling) and in response to experimental starvation exposure. We measured tissue specific proliferation rates and the expression of cell cycling genes and the iron binding protein Le-ferritin in freshly collected specimens in spring (Nov 2008) and at the end of summer (March 2009). For the experimental approach, we focused on 14 cell cycling and metabolic genes using the same animal size groups. Mantle tissue of young bivalves was the only tissue showing accelerated proliferation in summer (1.7 % of cells dividing per day in March) compared to 0.4% dividing cells in animals collected in November. In mantel, siphon and adductor muscle proliferation rates were higher in younger compared to older indiciduals. At transcript level, Le-cyclin D was upregulated in digestive gland of older animals collected in spring (Nov) compared to March indicating enhanced cell proliferation. Likewise, during experimental starvation Le-cyclin D expression increased in large clam digestive gland, whereas Le-cyclin D and the autophagic factor beclin1 decreased in digestive gland of smaller starved clams. The paper corroborates earlier findings of size and age dependent differences in the metabolic response and gene expression patterns in L. elliptica under energetic deprivation. Age structure of shallow water populations can potentially change due to differences in cellular response between young and old animals as environmental stress levels increase.



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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
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Published
Eprint ID
40814
DOI 10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.05.003

Cite as
Husmann, G. , Philipp, E. and Abele, D. (2016): Seasonal proliferation rates and the capacity to express genes involved in cell cycling and maintenance in response to seasonal and experimental food shortage in Laternula elliptica from King George Island , Marine Environmental Research, 118 , pp. 57-68 . doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.05.003


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