Physiological and biochemical changes during lecithotrophic larval development and early juvenile growth in the northern stone crab, Lithodes maja (Decapoda: Anomura)

kanger [ at ]


Larvae of the northern stone crab, Lithodes maja L., were reared in the laboratory from hatching to the second crab stage. Complete larval development (at constant 9 degrees C) lasted about 7 wk, invariably consisting of three pelagic zoeal stages and a semibenthic Megalopa; only two zoeal stages have been described in the literature. All larval stages are lecithotrophic. First feeding was consistently observed only after metamorphosis, in the first juvenile crab stage. In short intervals (every 1 to 5 d), developmental changes in biomass, B (expressed as: dry weight, W; carbon, C; nitrogen, N; hydrogen, H) and oxygen consumption (respiration, R) were measured in larvae and early juveniles; additionally, protein and carbohydrates were measured, but only in the zoeal stages and early Megalopa. Unusually high C contents (varying between 56 and 61% of W in eggs and freshly hatched Zoea I larvae from 12 different females) and high C:N weight ratios (8 to 11) indicate enhanced initial lipid stores, which are utilized as the major metabolic substrate during both embryonic and lecithotrophic larval development. Predominant degradation of lipids is shown indirectly; the C:N ratio decreased significantly, from 10 (at hatching) to 6 (at metamorphosis), while larval protein decreased only little, from ca. 55% of W (at hatching) to 48% (in the Megalopa). From hatching to metamorphosis, about 27% of the initially present W, 48% of C, 18% of N, and 52% of H were lost. This decrease in larval biomass can be described as an exponential function of development time. The major part of these losses were associated with metabolic energy requirements, while exuvial losses were comparably small. In each of the zoeal stages, only about 1 to 2% of late premoult (LPM) B was shed with the exuvia. The Megalopa, which produces a much thicker, calcified exoskeleton, lost 20% of LPM W, but only 5 to 8% of organic constituents (C, N, H). Much higher exuvial losses were measured in the Crab I stage (51% in W, 21% in C, 5% in N, and 7% in H). Maximum respiration was found in the actively swimming zoeal stages, a minimum in the predominantly benthic, mostly inactive Megalopa. The Crab I stage exhibits also a sluggish behaviour and low R, in spite of beginning food uptake and growth. Immediately after metamorphosis, the juvenile crab gained rapidly in W, in particular in its C fraction. A transitorily steep increase in the C:N ratio indicates a replenishment of partially depleted lipid stores, but also a rapid initial increase of inorganic C in the heavily calcified exoskeleton. Instantaneous rates of growth, assimilation, and net growth efficiency (K-2) were high during the initial (postmoult) phase in the first juvenile crab stage (C-specific growth rate: 6% d(-1); K-2:70%), but decreased towards zero values during later stages of the moulting cycle; metabolism remained practically constant during the Crab I stage. Entirely lecithotrophic larval development from hatching to metamorphosis in L. main is considered an adaptation to seasonally short and limited planktonic food production in subarctic regions of the northern Atlantic.

Item Type
Peer revision
ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
Publication Status
Eprint ID
Cite as
Anger, K. (1996): Physiological and biochemical changes during lecithotrophic larval development and early juvenile growth in the northern stone crab, Lithodes maja (Decapoda: Anomura) , Marine Biology, 126 , pp. 283-296 .


Research Platforms


Edit Item Edit Item