The German Case Study: Pioneer Projects of Aquaculture-Wind Farm Multi-Uses


Contact
Bela.H.Buck [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Most studies on multi-use concepts of aquaculture and wind farms explored cultivation feasibility of extractive species, such as seaweed or bivalves. However, recent studies also included the cultivation of crustaceans or fish culture in the vicinity of wind turbines. Consequently, new approaches combine fed and extractive species in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) concepts for offshore multi-use to reduce nutrient output and the overall environmental impact of aquaculture operations. In this chapter the findings of a series of mussel and oyster cultivation experiments over several seasons are presented, which were conducted at different offshore test sites in the German Bight. Sites were selected within future offshore wind farm areas for an explicit multi-use perspective. Results have demonstrated successful growth and fitness parameters of these candidates and therefore definitely proved the suitability of these bivalve extractive species for open ocean aquaculture. Another approach for multi-use in offshore wind farms is its use as marine protected area or even for reinforcement or restoration of endangered species, which need the absence of any fisheries activity for recovery. Current projects are testing this perspective for the native European oyster Ostrea edulis and the European lobster Homarus gammarus. From the technological point of view there are many options on how to connect aquaculture devices, such as longline and ring structures as well as different cage types, to the foundations as well as to install it in the centre of the free area between wind turbines. Next to the system design also experiments on drag forces originating from the aquaculture structure on the foundation and vice versa were investigated. Complementary to the biological, environmental end technical aspects, a number of studies were specifically targeted to address and include stakeholders, their attitudes, their interests and concerns over time. By this approach, the inclusion of stakeholders into the research process from its very beginning until today, co-production of knowledge could be fostered. Next to joint identification of the major impediments and concerns of offshore aquaculture under multi-use conditions, new issues and research questions were identified. Primary focus on the economic potential of aquaculture in offshore wind farms was shown for consumption mussels. The production of mussels using longline technology is sufficiently profitable even under the assumption of substantial cost increases. This is especially true, if existing capacities could be used. Last but not least, the EEZ is a special area—it is not a state territory even if a coastal state has its sovereign rights and jurisdiction. It is an area where three legal systems come together: international law, law of the European Union and national law. There are no mariculture projects in the German EEZ and no approval procedure has been completed so far. Some sites are not suitable for mariculture, especially because of nature conservation and shipping.



Item Type
Inbook
Authors
Divisions
Primary Division
Programs
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Peer revision
Peer-reviewed
Publication Status
Published
Eprint ID
44250
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-51159-7

Cite as
Buck, B. H. , Krause, G. , Pogoda, B. , Grote, B. , Wever, L. , Goseberg, N. , Schupp, M. F. , Mochtak, A. and Czybulka, D. (2017): The German Case Study: Pioneer Projects of Aquaculture-Wind Farm Multi-Uses / B. Buck ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7491-3273 and R. Langan (editors) , In: Aquaculture Perspective of Multi-Use Sites in the Open Ocean: The Untapped Potential for Marine Resources in the Anthropocene, Aquaculture Perspective of Multi-Use Sites in the Open Ocean: The Untapped Potential for Marine Resources in the Anthropocene, Springer International Publishing, 102 p., ISBN: 978-3-319-51159-7 . doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-51159-7


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