Morphological, molecular, and toxin analysis of field populations of Alexandrium genus from the Argentine Sea


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Bernd.Krock [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

In the Argentine Sea, blooms of toxigenic dinoflagellates of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex have led to fish and bird mortalities and human deaths as a consequence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Yet little is known about the occurrence of other toxigenic species of the genus Alexandrium, or of their toxin composition beyond coastal waters. The distribution of Alexandrium species and related toxins in the Argentine Sea was determined by sampling surface waters on an oceanographic expedition during austral spring from ~39°S to 48°S. Light microscope and SEM analysis for species identification and enumeration was supplemented by confirmatory PCR analysis from field samples. The most frequent Alexandrium taxon identified by microscopy corresponded to the classical description of A. tamarense. Only weak signals of Group I from the A. tamarense species complex were detected by PCR of bulk field samples, but phylogenetic reconstruction of rDNA sequences from single cells from one station assigned them to ribotype Group I (Alexandrium catenella). PCR probes for Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium ostenfeldii yielded a positive signal, although A. minutum morphology did not completely match the classical description. Analysis of PSP toxin composition of plankton samples revealed toxin profiles dominated by gonyautoxins (GTX1/4). The main toxic cyclic imine detected was 13-desMe-spirolide C and this supported the association with A. ostenfeldii in the field. This study represents the first integrated molecular, morphological and toxinological analysis of field populations of the genus Alexandrium in the Argentine Sea.



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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
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Eprint ID
46005
DOI 10.1111/jpy.12574

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Fabro, E. , Almandoz, G. O. , Ferrario, M. E. , John, U. , Tillmann, U. , Toebe, K. , Krock, B. and Cembella, A. (2017): Morphological, molecular, and toxin analysis of field populations of Alexandrium genus from the Argentine Sea , Journal of Phycology, 53 (6), pp. 1206-1222 . doi: 10.1111/jpy.12574


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