Effects of salinity variation on growth and yessotoxin composition in the marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra from a Skagerrak fjord system (western Sweden)


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Bernd.Krock [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra is a toxigenic species capable of forming high magnitude and occasionally harmful algal blooms (HABs), particularly in temperate coastal waters throughout the world. Three cultured isolates of L. polyedra from a fjord system on the Skagerrak coast of Sweden were analyzed for their growth characteristics and to determine the effects of a strong salinity gradient on toxin cell quotas and composition. The cell quota of yessotoxin (YTX) analogs, as determined by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), ranged widely among strains. For two strains, the total toxin content remained constant over time in culture, but for the third strain, the YTX cell quota significantly decreased (by 32%) during stationary growth phase. The toxin profiles of the three strains differed markedly and none produced YTX. The analog 41a-homo-YTX (m/z 1155), its putative methylated derivative 9-Me-41a-homo-YTX (m/z 1169) and an unspecified keto-YTX (m/z 1047) were detected in strain LP29-10H, whereas strain LP30-7B contained nor-YTX (m/z 1101), and two unspecified YTX analogs at m/z 1159 and m/z 1061. The toxin profile of strain LP30-8D comprised two unspecified YTX analogs at m/z 1061 and m/z 991 and carboxy-YTX (m/z 1173). Strain LP30-7B cultured at multiple salinities (10, 16, 22, 28 and 34) did not tolerate the lowest salinity (10), but there was a statistically significant decrease (by 21%) in toxin cell quota between growth at the highest versus lower permissible salinities. The toxin profile for strain LP30-7B remained constant over time for a given salinity. At lower salinities, however, the proportion of the unspecified YTX analog (m/z 1061) was significantly higher, especially with respect to nor-YTX (m/z 1101). This study shows high intra-specific variability in yessotoxin composition among strains from the same geographical region and inconsistency in toxin cell quota under different environmental regimes and growth stages in culture. This variation has important implications for the kinetics of YTX production and food web transfer in natural bloom populations from diverse geographical regions.



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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
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47791
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Peter, C. , Krock, B. and Cembella, A. (2018): Effects of salinity variation on growth and yessotoxin composition in the marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra from a Skagerrak fjord system (western Sweden) , Harmful Algae, 78 , pp. 9-17 .


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