The effect of temperature and salinity on growth rate and azaspiracid cellquotas in two strains ofAzadinium poporum (Dinophyceae)from PugetSound, Washington State

Urban.Tillmann [ at ]


Azaspiracids (AZA) are novel lipophilic polyether marine biotoxins associated with azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP). Azaspiracid-59 (AZA-59) is a new AZA that was recently detected in strains of Azadinium poporum from Puget Sound, Washington State. In order to understand how environmental factors affect AZA abundances in Puget Sound, a laboratory experiment was conducted with two local strains of A. poporum to estimate the growth rate and AZA-59 (both intra- and extracellular) cell quotas along temperature and salinity gradients. Both strains of A. poporum grew across a wide range of temperatures (6.7 °C to 25.0 °C), and salinities (15 to 35). Growth rates increased with increasing temperature up to 20.0 °C, with a range from 0.10 d−1 to 0.42 d−1. Both strains of A. poporum showed variable growth rates from 0.26 d−1 to 0.38 d−1 at salinities from 15 to 35. The percentage of intracellular AZA-59 in both strains was generally higher in exponential than in stationary phase along temperature and salinity gradients, indicating higher retention of toxin in actively growing cells. Cellular toxin quotas varied by strain in both the temperature and salinity treatments but were highest at the lowest growth rates, especially for the faster growing strain, NWFSC1011. Consistent with laboratory experiments, field investigations in Sequim Bay, WA, during 2016–2018 showed that A. poporum was detected when salinity and temperature became favorable to higher growth rates in June and July. Although current field data of A. poporum in Puget Sound indicate a generally low abundance, the potential of local A. poporum to adapt to and grow in a wide range of temperature and salinity may open future windows for blooms. Although increased temperatures, anticipated for the Puget Sound region over the next decades, will enhance the growth of A. poporum, these higher temperatures will not necessarily support higher toxin cell quotas. Additional sampling and assessment of the total toxicity of AZA-59 will provide the basis for a more accurate estimation of risk for azaspiracid poisoning in Puget Sound shellfish.

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DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101665

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Dai, X. , Bill, B. , Adams, N. , Tillmann, U. , Sloan, C. , Lu, D. and Trainer, V. (2019): The effect of temperature and salinity on growth rate and azaspiracid cellquotas in two strains ofAzadinium poporum (Dinophyceae)from PugetSound, Washington State , Harmful Algae, 89 , p. 101665 . doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101665

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