Occurrence and distribution of Amphidomataceae (Dinophyceae) in Danish coastal waters of the North Sea, the Limfjord and the Kattegat/Belt area

Urban.Tillmann [ at ] awi.de


Some species of the dinophytes Azadinium and Amphidoma (Amphidomataceae) produce azaspiracids (AZA), lipophilic polyether compounds responsible for Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) in humans after consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxigenic Amphidomataceae are known to occur in the North Atlantic and the North Sea area, but little is known about their importance in Danish coastal waters. In 2016, 44 Stations were sampled on a survey along the Danish coastline, covering the German Bight, Limfjord, the Kattegat area, Great Belt and Kiel Bight. Samples were analysed by live microscopy, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) on the presence of Amphidomataceae and AZA. Amphidomataceae were widely distributed in the area, but were below detection limit on most of the inner Limfjord stations. Cell abundances of the three toxigenic species, determined with species-specific qPCR assays on Azadinium spinosum, Az. poporum and Amphidoma languida, were generally low and restricted to the North Sea and the northern Kattegat, which was in agreement with the distribution of the generally low AZA abundances in plankton samples. Among the toxigenic species, Amphidoma languida was dominant with highest cell densities up to 3×103 cells L−1 on North Sea stations and at the western entrance of the Limfjord. Azaspiracids detected in plankton samples include low levels of AZA-1 at one station of the North Sea, and higher levels of AZA-38 and -39 (up to 1.5 ng L−1) in the North Sea and the Limfjord entrance. Furthermore, one new AZA (named AZA-63) was discovered in plankton of two North Sea stations. Morphological, molecular, and toxinological characterisation of 26 newly established strains from the area confirmed the presence of four amphidomatacean species (Az. obesum, Az. dalianense, Az. poporum and Am. languida). The single new strain of Az. poporum turned out as a member of Ribotype A2, which was previously only known from the Mediterranean. Consistent with some of these Mediterranean A2 strains, but different to the previously established AZA-37 producing Az. poporum Ribotype A1 strains from Denmark, the new strain did not contain any AZA. Azaspiracids were also absent in all Az. obesum and Az. dalianense strains, but AZA-38 and -39 were found in all Am. languida strains with total AZA cell quotas ranging from 0.08 up to 94 fg cell−1. In conclusion, AZA-producing microalgae and their respective toxins were low in abundance but widely present in the area, and thus might be considered in local monitoring programs to preserve seafood safety in Danish coastal waters.

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DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101637

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Wietkamp, S. , Krock, B. , Gu, H. , Voss, D. , Klemm, K. and Tillmann, U. (2019): Occurrence and distribution of Amphidomataceae (Dinophyceae) in Danish coastal waters of the North Sea, the Limfjord and the Kattegat/Belt area , Harmful Algae, 88 , p. 101637 . doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101637

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