Pollution trace gas distributions and their transport in the Asian monsoon upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the StratoClim campaign 2017

Ingo.Wohltmann [ at ] awi.de


We present the first high resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases in the Asian Summer Monsoon Upper Troposphere and Lowermost Stratosphere (UTLS) from the Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) during the StratoClim (Stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes for better climate predictions) campaign with base in Kathamandu, Nepal, 2017. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), acetylene (C2H2), and formic acid (HCOOH) show strong local enhancements up to altitudes of 16 km. More than 500 pptv of PAN, more than 200 pptv of C2H2, and more than 200 pptv of HCOOH are observed. An observed local maximum of PAN and C2H2 at altitudes up to 18 km, reaching to the lowermost stratosphere, instead has been transported for a longer time. A local minimum of HCOOH is correlated with a maximum of ammonia (NH3), which suggests different wash out efficiencies of these species in the same air masses. To study the influence of convective transport to the measured pollution trace gas occurrences in detail, a trajectory analysis of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA examined backward trajectories, starting at geolocations of GLORIA measurements with enhanced pollution trace gases. Both trajectory schemes implemented advanced techniques for detection of convective events. These convective events along trajectories leading to GLORIA measurements with enhanced pollutants are located close to regions, where satellite measurements by OMI show enhanced tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the days prior to the observation. As an application of these highly resolved measurements, a comparison to the atmospheric models CAMS and EMAC is performed. It is demonstrated that these simulation results are able to reproduce large scale structures of the pollution trace gas distributions if the convective influence on the measured air masses is captured by the meteorological fields used by these simulations. Both models do not have sufficient horizontal resolution to capture all the convective events that are necessary to reproduce the fine structures measured by GLORIA. To investigate the influence of the strength of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions in the EMAC model, sensitivity studies with artificially enhanced NMVOC emissions are performed. With these enhanced emissions, the simulation results succeed to reproduce the measured peak values of the pollutants, but do not improve the comparison of spatial distributions.

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DOI 10.5194/acp-20-14695-2020

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Johansson, S. , Höpfner, M. , Kirner, O. , Wohltmann, I. , Bucci, S. , Legras, B. , Friedl-Vallon, F. , Glatthor, N. , Kretschmer, E. , Ungermann, J. and Wetzel, G. (2020): Pollution trace gas distributions and their transport in the Asian monsoon upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the StratoClim campaign 2017 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20 , pp. 14695-14715 . doi: 10.5194/acp-20-14695-2020

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