The Explosive Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Induces Gene Expression of Carbonyl Reductase in the Blue Mussel (Mytilus spp.) - A New Promising biomarker for Sea Dumped War Relicts?


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Matthias.Brenner [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Millions of tons of all kind of munitions, including mines, bombs and torpedoes have been dumped after World War II in the marine environment and do now pose a new threat to the seas worldwide. Beside the acute risk of unwanted detonation, there is a chronic risk of contamination, because the metal vessels corrode and the toxic and carcinogenic explosives (trinitrotoluene (TNT) and metabolites) leak into the environment. While the mechanism of toxicity and carcinogenicity of TNT and its derivatives occurs through its capability of inducing oxidative stress in the target biota, we had the idea if TNT can induce the gene expression of carbonyl reductase in blue mussels. Carbonyl reductases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. They metabolize xenobiotics bearing carbonyl functions, but also endogenous signal molecules such as steroid hormones, prostaglandins, biogenic amines, as well as sugar and lipid peroxidation derived reactive carbonyls, the latter providing a defence mechanism against oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we identified and cloned the gene coding for carbonyl reductase from the blue mussel Mytilus spp. by a bioinformatics approach. In both laboratory and field studies, we could show that TNT induces a strong and concentration-dependent induction of gene expression of carbonyl reductase in the blue mussel. Carbonyl reductase may thus serve as a biomarker for TNT exposure on a molecular level which is useful to detect TNT contaminations in the environment and to perform a risk assessment both for the ecosphere and the human seafood consumer.



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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
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Published
Eprint ID
53319
DOI 10.1007/s00204-020-02931-y

Cite as
Strehse, J. , Brenner, M. , Kisiela, M. and Maser, E. (2020): The Explosive Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Induces Gene Expression of Carbonyl Reductase in the Blue Mussel (Mytilus spp.) - A New Promising biomarker for Sea Dumped War Relicts? , Archives of Toxicology, 94 , pp. 4043-4054 . doi: 10.1007/s00204-020-02931-y


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EU Baltic Sea Intereg Project DAIMON


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