Multiple New Strains of Amphidomataceae (Dinophyceae) from the North Atlantic Revealed a High Toxin Profile Variability of Azadinium spinosum and a New Non-Toxigenic Az. cf. spinosum


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Urban.Tillmann [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Azaspiracids (AZA) are a group of lipophilic toxins, which are produced by a few species of the marine nanoplanktonic dinoflagellates Azadinium and Amphidoma (Amphidomataceae). A survey was conducted in 2018 to increase knowledge on the diversity and distribution of amphidomatacean species and their toxins in Irish and North Sea waters (North Atlantic). We here present a detailed morphological, phylogenetic, and toxinological characterization of 82 new strains representing the potential AZA producers Azadinium spinosum and Amphidoma languida. A total of ten new strains of Am. languida were obtained from the North Sea, and all conformed in terms of morphology and toxin profile (AZA-38 and-39) with previous records from the area. Within 72 strains assigned to Az. spinosum there were strains of two distinct ribotypes (A and B) which consistently differed in their toxin profile (dominated by AZA-1 and -2 in ribotype A, and by AZA-11 and -51 in ribotype B strains). Five strains conformed in morphology with Az. spinosum, but no AZA could be detected in these strains. Moreover, they revealed significant nucleotide differences compared to known Az. spinosum sequences and clustered apart from all other Az. spinosum strains within the phylogenetic tree, and therefore were provisionally designated as Az. cf. spinosum. These Az. cf. spinosum strains without detectable AZA were shown not to cause amplification in the species-specific qPCR assay developed to detect and quantify Az. spinosum. As shown here for the first time, AZA profiles differed between strains of Az. spinosum ribotype A in the presence/absence of AZA-1, AZA-2, and/or AZA-33, with the majority of strains having all three AZA congeners, and others having only AZA-1, AZA-1 and AZA-2, or AZA-1 and AZA-33. In contrast, no AZA profile variability was observed in ribotype B strains. Multiple AZA analyses of a period of up to 18 months showed that toxin profiles (including absence of AZA for Az. cf. spinosum strains) were consistent and stable over time. Total AZA cell quotas were highly variable both among and within strains, with quotas ranging from 0.1 to 63 fg AZA cell-1. Cell quota variability of single AZA compounds for Az. spinosum strains could be as high as 330-fold, but the underlying causes for the extraordinary large variability of AZA cell quota is poorly understood.



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Eprint ID
53615
DOI 10.3390/microorganisms9010134

Cite as
Tillmann, U. , Wietkamp, S. , Gu, H. , Krock, B. , Salas, R. and Clarke, D. (2021): Multiple New Strains of Amphidomataceae (Dinophyceae) from the North Atlantic Revealed a High Toxin Profile Variability of Azadinium spinosum and a New Non-Toxigenic Az. cf. spinosum , Microorgansims, 9 , p. 134 . doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9010134


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