In Vitro Effects of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Lytic Extracellular Compounds Produced by Alexandrium Strains on Hemocyte Integrity and Function in Mytilus edulis


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Bernd.Krock [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Harmful effects caused by the exposure to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) on bivalves are frequently difficult to attribute to one or the other compound group. We evaluate and compare the distinct effects of PSTs extracted from Alexandrium catenella (Alex5) cells and extracellular lytic compounds (LCs) produced by A. tamarense (NX-57-08) on Mytilus edulis hemocytes. We used a 4 h dose–response in vitro approach and analyzed how these effects correlate with those observed in a previous in vivo feeding assay. Both bioactive compounds caused moderated cell death (10–15%), being dose-dependent for PST-exposed hemocytes. PSTs stimulated phagocytic activity at low doses, with a moderate incidence in lysosomal damage (30–50%) at all tested doses. LCs caused a dose-dependent impairment of phagocytic activity (up to 80%) and damage to lysosomal membranes (up to 90%). PSTs and LCs suppressed cellular ROS production and scavenged H2O2 in in vitro assays. Neither PSTs nor LCs affected the mitochondrial membrane potential in hemocytes. In vitro effects of PST extracts on M. edulis hemocytes were consistent with our previous study on in vivo exposure to PST-producing algae, while for LCs, in vivo and in vitro results were not as consistent.



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Article
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Helmholtz Cross Cutting Activity (2021-2027)
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ISI/Scopus peer-reviewed
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Published
Eprint ID
54446
DOI 10.3390/toxins13080544

Cite as
Bianchi, V. A. , Bickmeyer, U. , Tillmann, U. , Krock, B. , Müller, A. and Abele, D. (2021): In Vitro Effects of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Lytic Extracellular Compounds Produced by Alexandrium Strains on Hemocyte Integrity and Function in Mytilus edulis , Toxins, 13 (8), p. 544 . doi: 10.3390/toxins13080544


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