Unknown Extracellular and Bioactive Metabolites of the Genus Alexandrium: A Review of Overlooked Toxins


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Urban.Tillmann [ at ] awi.de

Abstract

Various species of Alexandrium can produce a number of bioactive compounds, e.g., paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), spirolides, gymnodimines, goniodomins, and also uncharacterised bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs). The latter metabolites are released into the environment and affect a large range of organisms (from protists to fishes and mammalian cell lines). These compounds mediate allelochemical interactions, have anti-grazing and anti-parasitic activities, and have a potentially strong structuring role for the dynamic of Alexandrium blooms. In many studies evaluating the effects of Alexandrium on marine organisms, only the classical toxins were reported and the involvement of BECs was not considered. A lack of information on the presence/absence of BECs in experimental strains is likely the cause of contrasting results in the literature that render impossible a distinction between PSTs and BECs effects. We review the knowledge on Alexandrium BEC, (i.e., producing species, target cells, physiological effects, detection methods and molecular candidates). Overall, we highlight the need to identify the nature of Alexandrium BECs and urge further research on the chemical interactions according to their ecological importance in the planktonic chemical warfare and due to their potential collateral damage to a wide range of organisms.



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Article
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Helmholtz Cross Cutting Activity (2021-2027)
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Peer-reviewed, Web of Science / Scopus
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Published
Eprint ID
55316
DOI 10.3390/toxins13120905

Cite as
Long, M. , Krock, B. , Castrec, J. and Tillmann, U. (2021): Unknown Extracellular and Bioactive Metabolites of the Genus Alexandrium: A Review of Overlooked Toxins , Toxins, 13 , p. 905 . doi: 10.3390/toxins13120905


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