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Variability of Arctic and North Atlantic sea ice: A combined analysis of model results and observations from 1978 to 2001

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Kauker, F. , Gerdes, R. , Karcher, M. , Köberle, C. and Lieser, J. L. (2003): Variability of Arctic and North Atlantic sea ice: A combined analysis of model results and observations from 1978 to 2001 , Journal of Geophysical ResearchC6), 108 . doi: 10.1029/2002JC001573
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Abstract:

Ice cover data simulated by a coupled sea ice-oceanmodel of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean are compared withsatellite observations for the period 1978 to 2001. The capability ofthe model in reproducing the long-term mean state and the inter-seasonalvariability is demonstrated. The main modes of variability of thesatellite data and the simulation in the summer and winter half yearsare highly similar.Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the results from the sea ice-oceanmodel, we describe the relationship with atmospheric and oceanicvariables for the first two modes of sea-ice concentration variabilityin winter and in summer. The first winter mode shows a time delayedresponse to the Arctic Oscillation due to advection of heatanomalies in the ocean. The second winter mode is dominated by anevent in the late 1990s that is characterized by anomalously highpressure over the eastern Arctic. The first summer mode isstrongly influenced by the Arctic Oscillation of the previouswinter. The second summer mode is caused by anomalous air temperaturein the Arctic. This mode shows a distinctive trend and is related to anice extent reduction of about 4 10^5 km^2 over the 23 years ofanalysis.

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